Rife Frequencies & Oral Galvanism = Mercury Poisoning
Oral galvanism is the term used to explain electrical currents between two or more dissimilar metals in the mouth. Galvanism occurs between metal – dental restorations (metal fillings, crowns, bridges, implants, partial dentures etc.) and the electrolytes/enzymes present in our saliva.
In our oral cavity, a dental amalgam filling, similar to any object, interacts with the environment around it. As Marek (1992) mentioned in his study:
In this interaction it is subjected to chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and thermal forces. As a result, changes take place in the restoration's shape, surface qualities, composition, structure, and properties, which may affect the efficacy of the filling. At the same time, the oral environment is also affected. Metal ions are released by electrochemical reactions into the oral liquids, and particulate amalgam debris and non-metallic corrosion products are dislodged by mechanical forces into the oral cavity. Aggressive environments form in some regions adjacent to the filling. Atomic mercury is released and transported into the oral atmosphere. Electric currents generated by electrochemical reactions flow through the environment and tissues surrounding the restored tooth. The major interactions are shown schematically in Fig. 1.
These interactions have both a direct and indirect physiological consequence. This poses a new fundamental question, what is the magnitude of its effects?
In a study by Pleva, Ph.D. (1989), a total of 250 amalgam fillings were obtained from individuals who suspected their health complaints to be linked with chronic mercury poisoning. Three typical patient cases were presented in the study as seen below in table 1.
|Patient Case A||Patient Case B||Patient Case C|
|Male, 41 years’ old
Number of symptoms: 25
|Female, 62 years’ old
Oral status: 16 amalgams, 1 gold bridge, 3 gold crowns, Gold-amalgam contact: permanent and intermittent Root fillings: 6
Number of symptoms: 14, see Table 2.
|Female, 43 years
Oral status: 26 amalgams, 5 restorations on screwposts: 3 gold crowns, one of them on amalgam. Root fillings: 5
Investigated restoration: amalgam crown on stainless steel screwpost. No contact to gold.
Number of symptoms: 17, Table 2.
Symptoms which were most typical for the 250 patients with suspected chronic mercury poisoning included:
- Joint/muscle pains
- Back pains
- Severe fatigue
- Stress feelings
- Irritability, nervousness
- Concentration difficulties
- Shyness, depressions
- Loss of memory
- Sleep disturbances
- Liver troubles
- Breathing troubles
- Increased salvation
- Vision disturbances
- Double and dim vision
- Hearing disturbances
- Gastrointestinal trouble
- Chronic cold
- Frequent inflammations
- Metallic taste
- Irregular heart beat
- Heart and chest pains
- Increased blood pressure
- Skin changes
- Bleeding gums
- Loose teeth
All the recorded symptoms are known to be comprehended in chronic mercury poisoning. Mercury is accumulated in many organs but specifically the brain, generating a cascade of conditions. Mercury from amalgam fillings can be found in the red and white blood cells, additionally it was found that removal of amalgam fillings increased T4-lymphocytes count by as much as 55%. This shows how much the mercury burdens our immune systems. T4-cells are responsible for proper response of body immune system to antigens.
Mercury from amalgam fillings can be absorbed in three ways:
- by the lungs as vapor
- as salts or complexes in the GIT tract and through mucus membranes
- at the bottom of a filling through dental issue and nerve endings
Pleva, Ph.D. (1989) included microscopic examinations of the removed amalgam fillings which demonstrated various corrosion types including:
- crevice corrosion
- general and selective corrosion
- cracking and intergranular attack
- wear during chewing and teeth brushing, which have a very strong effect on deterioration of fillings and amounts of released mercury
- galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals and also between amalgams
The study made some concluding notes:
- The three presented patient cases obtained between 120 and 160 ng mercury a day from fillings not in contact to gold.
- Contact to a gold restoration caused a release of additional 250 ng mercury a day. Galvanic contact to gold may increase the amounts of released mercury by an order of magnitude.
- When chewing is considered, mercury release computed on the basis of Faradays law from corrosion currents, may reach several hundred micrograms per 1 cm2 and day.
- Compared to known toxic values, mercury from dental amalgam fillings presents a substantial contribution to the body mercury load.
- Amalgam removal results in alleviation of symptoms, known to occur upon chronic exposure to mercury.
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Interactions between dental amalgams and the oral environment
Adv Dent Res 6:100-109, September, 1992
Dental amalgam fillings interact in a complex way with the environment in the oral cavity as they are subjected to chemical, biological, mechanical, and thermal forces. These forces change the restoration's appearance and properties, while metal ions, amalgam debris, non-metallic corrosion products, and mercury vapor are released into the oral cavity. The phenomena and conditions that affect the amalgam/environment interaction include the chemistry and biochemistry of the environment, formation of biofilms on the amalgam surfaces, existence of localized corrosion cells, galvanic contacts with other metallic restorations, abrasion during mastication, and synergistic effects of the different forces. Corrosion processes result in a degradation of the functional amalgam properties, while tarnishing reactions cause discoloration. Corrosion degradation of amalgam fillings is due mainly to localized corrosion cells in pores and crevices. Corrosion on occlusal surfaces is accelerated by abrasion during mastication, which removes the protective surface films. The average total amounts of metal species, including mercury, released per day in vivo from a restoration have not been determined. Much of the reported indirect evidence for high mercury release rates is either unreliable or controversial. A more detailed investigation is needed and will require the development of more sophisticated techniques of sampling in vivo, as well as both experimental and theoretical modeling in vitro.
Corrosion and Mercury Release from Dental Amalgam
Jaro Pleva, Ph.D.
Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 4:141-158 · January 1989
Corrosion attacks on twenty-two dental amalgam restorations after in vivo service have been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy together with the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Technique, and by optical microscopy. From the measured depth and type of corrosion attack, estimates of released mercury amounts are made. The amalgam fillings have been obtained from members of a group of 250 individuals, who suspected their health troubles potentially to be chronic mercury poisoning from amalgam and were to have all amalgam fillings removed. Three typical patient cases are presented. Model calculations of released mercury, based on previously published measurements of corrosion currents with and without abrasion are also given. The investigations show, that the long-term release of mercury from a few amalgam fillings will often reach or exceed the recommended limits for daily intake of mercury. Hence, mercury from corroding amalgam fillings represents a potential health hazard. Danger of galvanic contact between amalgam and gold restorations is particularly emphasized.
Galvanic corrosion and cytotoxic effects of amalgam and gallium alloys coupled to titanium.
Bumgardner JD, Johnasson BI.
European Journal Of Oral Sciences 104(3):300-8 · July 1996
The aim of this study was to examine and compare the galvanic corrosion of a conventional, a dispersed high-copper, and a palladium-enriched spherical high-copper amalgam and a gallium alloy coupled to titanium in saline and cell culture solutions, and to evaluate the effects of the couples on cultured cells. The potentials and charge transfers between amalgams and titanium were measured by electrochemical corrosion methods. Cytotoxicity of the couples, as indicated by the uptake of neutral red vital stain, was determined in 24-h direct contact human gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Results of this study indicated that before connecting the high-copper amalgams to titanium, the amalgams exhibited more positive potentials which resulted in initial negative charge transfers, i.e. corrosion of titanium. However, this initial corrosion appeared to cause titanium to passivate, and a shift in galvanic currents to positive charge transfers, i.e. corrosion of the amalgam samples. Lower galvanic currents were measured for the amalgam-titanium couples as compared to the gallium alloy-titanium couple. Coupling the conventional or the palladium-enriched high-copper amalgams to titanium did not significantly affect the uptake of neutral red as compared to cells not exposed to any test alloy. However, significant cytotoxic effects were observed when the dispersed-type high-copper amalgam and the gallium alloy were coupled to titanium. Even though the corrosion currents measured for these couples were less than gold alloys coupled to amalgam, these results suggest there is the potential for released galvanic corrosion products to become cytotoxic. These data warrant further investigations into the effects of coupling amalgam and gallium alloys to titanium in the oral environment.
Galvanic corrosion of selected dental alloys
J, Karov & I, Hinberg
Journal Of Oral Rehabilitation 28(3):212-9 · April 2001
Samples prepared from three different amalgam brands were coupled to two gold alloys and orthodontic brackets. In the resulting galvanic cells, the amalgam coupled to gold were anodic, exhibiting galvanic current densities about one order of magnitude higher than the uncoupled corrosion current densities of 0.2-0.5 microA. Coupling amalgams to orthodontic brackets resulted in galvanic current densities of the same magnitude as the uncoupled samples. Corrosion current densities at the anode were found to be up to six times higher than the measured galvanic current densities. Brushing caused transient increases in galvanic current densities that decayed within 100 s to the previous steady state levels. Brushing of amalgam/bracket couples, caused an anodic peak followed by brief polarization reversal during which the brackets were anodic.
Mercury Toxicity and Health Effect
Dr. Mukta Mutneja
International Journal of Chemical Studies 2016; 4(2): 96-100
Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed (in several chemical forms) in nature. It evaporates at room temperature and its inhalation and contact may cause poisoning. The toxicity of mercury depends on its chemical form and route of exposure. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of mercury exposure. Most human exposure results from fish consumption, dental amalgam, cosmetics, agrochemicals and many other industries. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Their sources, symptoms, complications have been described.
Dissimilar metals in the mouth as a possible cause of otherwise unexplainable symptoms.
B. L. HYAMS, D.D.S AND HARRY C. BALLON, M.D., C.M., F.A.C.S.,
The Canadian Medical Association Journal Nov. 1933
Recent investigations have demonstrated the fact that metals in the mouth may set up electro-galvanic discharges. These discharges take place between dissimilar metals, and, according to Solomon, Reinhard and Goodale, on some few occasions between alloys of the same type. THEORY: It is generally well known that electrical energy is produced when dissimilar metals are immersed in an electrolyte. The metals are found to be arranged in the electromotive force series from positive (highest potential) to negative as follows: (positive end) aluminum, zinc, chromium, iron, nickel, tin, copper, mercury, silver, palladium, platinum, gold (negative end). Electrogalvanic activity parallels chemical activity